B&B Owners

Reference & Frequently Asked Questions

The B&B Owners Internet Marketing reference section

Internet Marketing Glossary

The Internet marketing industry often uses terminology that is unknown to newcomers. Below is a glossary of terms, prepared especially for B&B Owners to help guide you through the lingo.

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

A

Ad Clicks
Number of times users click on an ad banner.

Ad Click Rate
Sometimes referred to as "click-through," - shown as a percentage, this is the number of times and ad is clicked versus the times its shown

Address (web address)
A unique identifier for a computer or site online, usually a URL for a web site or marked with an @ for an email address. Literally, it is how your computer finds a location on the information highway.

Ad Views (Impressions)
Number of times an ad banner is downloaded and presumably seen by visitors. If the same ad appears on multiple pages simultaneously, this statistic may understate the number of ad impressions, due to browser caching. Corresponds to net impressions in traditional media. There is currently no way of knowing if an ad was actually loaded. Most servers record an ad as served even if it was not.

Affiliate Marketing
A system of advertising in which site A agrees to feature buttons from site B, and site A gets a percentage of any sales generated for site B. It can also be applied to situations in which an advertiser may be looking for marketing information, rather than a cash sale. Popular among startups with very small marketing budgets.

Affinity Marketing
Marketing efforts including e-mail promotions, banners or offline media aimed at consumers on the basis of established buying patterns. (For example, "Dear Cowpoke, as a valued cattle-restraint equipment customer, you're invited to a special Webcast sneak peek of our newest product: the Heifer Holder. Act now!")

Anchor
A word, phrase or graphic image, in hypertext, it is the object that is highlighted, underlined or "clickable" which links to another site or page.

Applet
A program or script designed to be executed from within another application. Unlike an application, applets cannot be executed directly from the operating system.

ARPA (Advanced Research Project Agency)
The U.S. Department of Defence agency that, in conjunction with leading universities, created ARPAnet, the precursor of the Internet.

Auditor
Third-party company that tracks, counts and verifies ad-banner requests or verifies a Web site's ad reporting system.

Avatar
A digital representation of a user in a virtual reality site.

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B

Backbone
A high-speed line or series of connections that forms a large pathway within a network. The term is relative to the size of network it is serving. A backbone in a small network would probably be much smaller than many non-backbone lines in a large network.

Bandwidth
How much information (text, images, video, sound) can be sent through a connection. Usually measured in bits-per-second. A full page of text is about 16,000 bits. A fast modem can move approximately 15,000 bits in one second. Full-motion full-screen video requires about 10,000,000 bits-per-second, depending on compression.

Banners
Advertising Banners are areas on a website occupied by either a clickable graphic or html text that advertise a product or service and when clicked direct the user to the website for that product. For B&Bs these are used to increase traffic, improve SEO by providing incoming links, to promote special offers and occasionally to promote accommodation for local events.

Beta
This term has migrated from computer and software development, and it is usually used as "beta site." It means test site or test version. Beta is not the final version of a product or web site, but it's close enough to show in public and work the bugs out.

Bookmark
A bookmark is an easy way to find your way back to a web site -- just like a real bookmark helps you keep your place in a book you are reading.

Bounce
This is what happens when email returns as undeliverable.

Branding
A school of advertising that says, "If the consumer has heard of us, we've done our job." Fortunately for agencies, brand value is extremely difficult to measure, so branding campaigns can be easily defended with grandiose predictions of future glory.

Browser
An application used to view information from the Internet. Browsers provide a user-friendly interface for navigating through and accessing the vast amount of information on the Internet.

Browser Caching
To speed surfing, browsers store recently used pages on a user's disk. If a site is revisited, browsers display pages from the disk instead of requesting them from the server. As a result, servers undercount the number of times a page is viewed.

Browsing
A term that refers to exploring an online area, usually on the World Wide Web.

BBS (Bulletin Board System)
Software that enables users to log into email, usenet and chat groups via modem.

Buttons
Objects that, when clicked once, cause something to happen.

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C

Cache
Cache is a storage area for frequently accessed information. Retrieval of the information is faster from the cache than the originating source. There are many types of cache including RAM cache, secondary cache, disk cache, and cache memory to name a few.

CD-ROM
Compact Disk-Read Only Memory, a storage medium popular in modern computers. One CD-ROM can hold 600 MB of data.

CGI
Common Gateway Interface. An interface-creation scripting program that allows Web pages to be made on the fly based on information from buttons, checkboxes, text input, etc.

Chat Room
An area online where you can chat with other members in real-time.

Click
The opportunity for a visitor to be transferred to a location by clicking on an ad, as recorded by the server.

Click-Through Rate
Percentage of times a user responded to an advertisement by clicking on the ad button/banner. At one time the granddaddy of Web-marketing measurements, click-through is based on the idea that online promotions that do what they're intended to do will elicit a click.

Cookie
A file on your computer that records information such as where you have been on the World Wide Web. The browser stores this information which allows a site to remember the browser in future transactions or requests. Since the Web's protocol has no way to remember requests, cookies read and record a user's browser type and IP address, and store this information on the user's own computer. The cookie can be read only by a server in the domain that stored it. Visitors can accept or deny cookies, by changing a setting in their browser preferences.

CPC
Cost Per Click

CPL
Cost Per Lead

CPM
CPM is the cost per thousand for a particular site. A Web site that charges $15,000 per banner and guarantees 600,000 impressions has a CPM of $25 ($15,000 divided by 600).

CPT
Cost Per Transaction

CPTM
Cost per targeted thousand impressions.

CPU (Central Processing Unit)
The Central Processing Unit is the main "brain" of the computer, where the information is processed and calculations are done.

Coverage
The percentage of a population group covered by the Internet.

Creative
The technology used to create or develop an ad unit. The most common creative technology for banners is GIF or JPEG images. Other creative technologies include Java, - HTML, or streaming audio or video. These are commonly referred to as rich media banners.

Cyberspace
Coined by author William Gibson in his 1984 novel "Neuromancer," cyberspace is now used to describe all of the information available through computer networks.

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D

Direct Response
The school of advertising that says, "The Internet is an interactive medium. If the consumer interacts with our marketing efforts, we've done our job." Unfortunately for agencies, there's nowhere to hide with interactive campaigns, as they produce precise success or failure measurements.

Domain
A domain is the main subdivision of Internet addresses, the last three letters after the final dot, and it tells you what kind of organization you are dealing with. There are six top-level domains widely used in the US: .com (commercial) .edu (educational),.net (network operations), .gov (US government), .mil (US military) and .org (organization). Other, two letter domains represent countries; thus;.uk for the United Kingdom and so on.

Domain Consolidation Level
Data reflects the consolidation of multiple domain names and/or URL's associated with the main site.

Drill Down
A term used to express what a surfer does as he or she goes further into a web site -- deeper into the back pages, deeper into data. Make certain that when someone takes the time to "drill down" into your site that they come back with information worth digging for.

Dynamic Rotation
Advertisements rotate on a timed basis.

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E

E-mail
Electronic Mail, text files that are sent from one person to another.

Emoticons
The online means of facial expressions and gestures. Examples: :) Tip your head to the left and you will see the two eyes and smiling mouth. Use them where applicable in chats and e-mail. Other emoticons include: :( sad :0 surprised o:) innocent.

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F

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)
FAQ is a commonly used abbreviation for "Frequently Asked Questions." Most Internet sites will have a "FAQ" to explain what is in the area and how to use its features.

Firewall
A security barrier placed between an organization's internal computer network -- either its IS system or intranet -- and the Internet. It keeps your information in, and unwanted people out. It consists of one or more routers which accept, reject or edit transmitted information and requests.

Flame
An intentionally crude or abusive email message or usenet post. Rule: Don't do it. Ever. Not only is it bad netiquette, you leave a trail.

Forms
The pages in most browsers that accept information in text-entry fields. They can be customized to receive company sales data and orders, expense reports or other information. They can also be used to communicate.

Frames
The use of multiple, independent sections to create a single Web page. Each frame is built as a separate HTML file but with one "master' file to identify each section. When a user requests a page with frames, several pages will be displayed as panes. Sites using frames may report one page request with several panes as multiple page requests. Most audit firms count only the master HTML page request and therefore can accurately report the page requests.

Freeware
Shareware, or software, that can be downloaded off the Internet -- for free.

Frequency
The number of times an ad is delivered to the same browser in a single session or time period. A site needs to use cookies in order to manage ad frequency.

FTP
File Transfer Protocol. A protocol that allows the transfer of files from one computer to another. FTP can also be used as a verb.

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G

Gateway
A link from one computer system to a different computer system.

GIF (Graphic Interchange Format)
GIF (pronounced "gift") is a graphics format that can be displayed on almost all web browsers. It is a common compression format used for transferring graphics files between different computers. Most of the "pictures" you see online are GIF files. They display in 256 colors and have built-in compression. GIF images are the most common form of banner creative.

GIF89a or Animated GIF
A GIF animation tool that creates sequences of images to simulate animation and allows for transparent background colors. Animated GIF's can generate higher response rates than static banners.

Gross Exposures
Each time a Web server sends a file to a browser, it is recorded in the server log file as a "hit." Hits are generated for every element of a requested page (including graphics, text and interactive items). If a page containing two graphics is viewed by a user, three hits will be recorded - one for the page itself and one for each graphic. Webmasters use hits to measure their server's work load. Because page designs vary greatly, hits are a poor guide for traffic measurement.

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H

Hacker
Originally used to describe a computer enthusiast who pushed a system to its highest performance through clever programming.

Helper Application
This term refers to software programs that run along with browser programs enabling them to perform additional functions. Good examples are Shockwave for downloading and viewing moving images and RealAudio for hearing sounds and music online.

History List
Most browsers have a pull-down menu which displays the sites you've recently visited so you can return to site instantly or view your latest surfing session. The same mechanism makes it possible for servers to track where you were before visiting a particular site -- better viewing habit information than television networks ever dreamed of providing.

Hit
The sending of a single file, whether text, graphic, audio or other type of file. When a page request is made, all elements or files that comprise the page are recorded as hits on a servers log file. While there is no accurate formula for determining the number of visitors to a page or site based on the number of hits -- one visitor could go back and forth twenty times or twenty people could visit a single time each -- a hit at least indicates somebody was there. Thus, hits can be far more valuable than the tracking devices in any other media

Home Page
The page designated as the main point of entry of a Web site (or main page) or the starting point when a browser first connects to the Internet. Typically, it welcomes you and introduces the purpose of the site, or the organization sponsoring it, and then provides links to the lower-level pages of the site. In business terms, it's the grabber. If your home page downloads too slowly, or it's unclear or uninteresting, you will probably lose a customer.

Host
An Internet host used to be a single machine connected to the Internet (which meant it had a unique IP address). As a host, it made available to other machines on the network certain services. However, virtual hosting has now meant that one physical host can now be actually many virtual hosts.

Hotlists
These can be pull-down or pop-up menus on browsers that contain new or popular sites. Major browser and search engine home pages also contain updated hotlists, and there are entire sites -- such as Cool Site O' the Day.

HTML
HyperText Markup Language is a coding language used to make hypertext documents for use on the Web. HTML resembles old-fashioned typesetting code, where a block of text is surrounded by codes that indicate how it should appear. HTML allows text to be "linked" to another file on the Internet.

Hypertext
Any text that that can be chosen by a reader and which causes another document to be retrieved and displayed.

HTTP
hypertext Transfer Protocol, the format of the World Wide Web. When a browser sees "HTTP" at the beginning of an address, it knows that it is viewing a WWW page.

Hyperlink
This is the clickable link in text or graphics on a web page that takes you to another place on the same page, another page or a whole other site. It is the single most powerful and important function of online communications. Hyperlinks are revolutionizing the way the world gets its information.

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I

Impression(Ad Impression or Page Impression)
The ad impression is the metric a site uses for measuring inventory. Different definitions exist for this term: 1. The viewing of a page or ad(s) by the user. The assumption is that the page or ad images were successfully downloaded and the user viewed the page or ads on the page are recorded whether or not a user clicks on an ad. 2. The request for a page or ad. Agencies usually collect a fee for every thousand impressions (hence the term CPM cost per thousand).

Infopreneur
Someone who starts up a business in information technology or online communications.

Interactivity
If your web site isn't interactive, it's dead.

Internet
A collection of approximately 60,000 independent, interconnected networks that use the TCP/IP protocols and that evolved from ARPANet of the late '60s and early '70s. The Net," is a worldwide system of computer networks providing reliable and redundant connectivity between disparate computers and systems by using common transport and data protocols.

Internet Domain Name
The unique name that identifies an Internet entity.

Interstitial
Means "something in between" and is a page that is inserted in the normal flow of content between a user and a site. An Interstitial Ad is an "intrusive" ad unit that is spontaneously delivered without specifically being requested by a user. Blocking the site behind it, Interstitial Ads are designed to grab consumers' attention for the few nanoseconds it takes them to close the window. Interstitial's can be full pages or small daughter windows. Also referred to as "popups."

Intranet
Intranets are private networks, usually maintained by corporations for internal communications, which use Internet -- usually web -- protocols, software and servers. They are relatively cheap, fast, and reliable networking and information warehouse systems that link offices around the world. They make it is easy for corporate users to communicate with one another, and to access the information resources of the Internet.

IRC (Internet Relay Chat)
A facility that allows people -- from many different places in the world at one time -- to chat in real time. The chats, or forums, are typed remarks, and they can be either public or private. This, understandably, is a wildly popular consumer area of the Internet. A sort of "ham radio" for the '90s, it offers intimacy combined with autonomy. Many celebrities are also talking to the public at pre-announced times, so IRC has commercial publicity uses, too. Business meetings can be conducted in the same way.

Inventory
The number of ads available for sale on a Web site. Ad inventory is determined by the number of ads on a page, the number of pages containing ad space and the number of page requests.

IP address
Internet Protocol address. Every system connected to the Internet has a unique IP address, which consists of a number in the format A.B.C.D where each of the four sections is a decimal number from 0 to 255. Most people use Domain Names instead and the resolution between Domain Names and IP addresses is handled by the network and the Domain Name Servers. With virtual hosting, a single machine can act like multiple machines (with multiple domain names and IP addresses).

ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network)
ISDN lines are high-speed dial-up connections to the Internet. That's good. What's bad is that their cost and availability is determined by local telephone companies, which means in some places they are available, in other places not; and sometimes they're cheap, and at other times wildly expensive. It is a lot of commotion for a connection roughly four times faster -- 128,000 bits per second -- than a normal phone line. (The joke among communications experts is that ISDN stands for "It Still Does Nothing.") Wait for fiber optic lines which will be thousands of times faster -- that's the future.

ISP (Internet Service Provider)
A business that provides access to the Internet. Its services are available to either individuals or companies, and include a dial-in interface with the Internet, software supply and often web site and intranet design. There are currently over 3,000 ISPs in the U.S. alone. It's a growth business, and as a result pricing is highly competitive, so shop around.

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J

Java
Java is an object oriented programming language created by Sun Microsystems that supports enhanced features such as animation, or real-time updating of information. If you are using a web browser that supports Java, an applet (Java program) embedded in the Web page will automatically run.

JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group)
JPEG (pronounced "jay peg") is a graphics format newer than GIF which displays photographs and graphic images with millions of colors, it also compresses well and is easy to download.

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K

Keyword
A word -- or often phrase -- used to focus an online search.

Killer App
A term that migrated from software development to online. It is nothing more than tech-talk for the eternal search for next big idea.

L

Lag
The amount of time between making an online request or command and receiving a response. Until lag time becomes no time at all the Internet will not be consumer-friendly, and its profit potential will remain limited.

LAN (Local Area Network)
A computer network -- which for some reason is pronounced "land" -- limited to a certain area, usually a single floor or building. The web is a network, but not a LAN.

Link
An electronic connection between two Web sites (also called "hot link").

Listserver
A program that automatically sends email to a list of subscribers. It is the mechanism that is used to keep newsgroups informed.

Load
Usually used with up-load or down-load, it means to transfer files or software -- to "load" -- from one computer or server to another computer or server. In other words, it's the movement of information online.

Log or Log Files
File that keeps track of network connections.

Login
The identification or name used to access -- log into -- a computer, network or site.

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M

Mailing List
Online a mailing list is an automatically distributed email message on a particular topics going to certain individuals. You can subscribe or unsubscribe to a mailing list by sending a message via email. There are many good professional mailing lists, and you should find the ones that concern your business.

MIME
Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions, a method of encoding a file for delivery over the Internet.

Modem
A contraction for "modulation/demodulation," it is the device that converts a digital bit stream into an analog signal (and back again) so computers can communicate across phone lines.

Modem Speeds
The speed at which you connect to the Internet through your computer's modem. They include 14.4, 28,8, 33.6 and ISDN. T1 and T3 are high speed connections that don't require a modem.

Mosaic
Developed by NCSA, the National Center for Supercomputing Applications at the University of Illinois in Urbana, this is the breakthrough browser that revolutionized the Internet. It brought clickability and graphics to a hard-to-navigate, text-heavy information system and made the web -- and its vast commercial possibilities -- a reality.

MPEG
The file format that is used to compress and transmit movies or video clips online.

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N

Netiquette
A term that is used to describe the do's and don'ts of online behavior. There are books out about it. Read them if you want, But it all comes down to good business -- and social -- practice. Be polite, be aware of the folks you are talking to, talk nicely and not too much..... above all, be tolerant of other cultures.

Network (Ad Network)
An aggregator or broker of advertising inventory from many sites - 24/7 Media is an Ad Network.

Net Monthly Circulation
The number of unique Web users in the panel that visited the site over the course of the reporting period, expressed as a percentage of the in-tab.

Newbie
A term to describe anyone new to an area, whether it be a particular forum online or the Internet.

Newsgroup
A discussion group on Usenet devoted to talking about a specific topic. Currently, there are over 15,000 newsgroups. Also called usenets, newsgroups consist of messages posted on electronic bulletin boards. Each board has a theme, and there are tens of thousands of newsgroups concerning every imaginable topic. Many of them cover professional subjects and societies and are rich sources of business information; others are junk and contain little but mindless drivel.

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O

Online
It's where you are right now -- and where the rest of the world is heading to get its information and entertainment, to communicate and buy products and services.

Online Service
A business that provides its subscribers with a wide variety of data transmitted over telecommunications lines. Online services provide an infrastructure in which subscribers can communicate with one another, either by exchanging e-mail messages or by participating in online conferences (forums). In addition, the service can connect users with an almost unlimited number of third-party information providers. Subscribers can get up-to-date stock quotes, news stories hot off the wire, articles from many magazines and journals, in fact, almost any information that has been put in electronic form. Of course, accessing all this data carries a price.

Opt in/Opt out
An e-mail marketing promotion that typically gives consumers an opportunity to "opt in" (taking action to be part of the promotion) or to "opt out" (taking action to not be part of the promotion). Marketers can be sensitive about the distinction, although many are secretly anxious about the day when e-mail, like real-world direct mail, becomes an opt-out medium.

P

Page
All Web sites are a collection of electronic "pages." Each Web page is a document formatted in HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) that contains text, images or media objects such as RealAudio player files, QuickTime videos or Java applets. The "home page" is typically a visitor's first point of entry and features a site index. Pages can be static or dynamically generated. All frames and frame parent documents are counted as pages.

Page Request
The opportunity for an HTML document to be appear in a browser window as a direct result of a visitors interaction with a Web site (IAB). The page request is for a browser to "get" a page from a site and this request is recorded by the server log.

Page Views
Number of times a user requests a page that may contain a particular ad. Indicative of the number of times an ad was potentially seen, or "gross impressions." Page views may overstate ad impressions if users choose to turn off graphics (often done to speed browsing).

Pay-per-Click
An advertising pricing model in which advertisers pay agencies based on how many consumers clicked on a promotion. Condemned by advertisers and agencies alike for its many marketing vagaries and technical loopholes.

Pay-per-Impression
An advertising pricing model in which advertisers pay agencies based on how many consumers see their promotions.

Pay-per-Sale
An advertising pricing model in which advertisers pay agencies based on how many consumers actually buy something as a direct result of the promotion. 

PCMCIA
An acronym meaning Personal Computer Memory Card Industry Association. Many laptop computers use these devices as modems.

PDF
Portable Document Format. Word processing software, business applications or desktop publishing files on the Web that look exactly like the originals. Must have Adobe Acrobat Reader to view.

PDF Files
Adobe's Portable Document Format (pdf) is a translation format used primarily for distributing files across a network, or on a web site. Files with a .pdf extension have been created in another application and then translated into .pdf files so they can be viewed by anyone -- regardless of platform.

PID (Personal Information Destination)
There are millions of pages of information on the web, but if you are looking for a specific item, there is only one page -- or very few -- that contains exactly the information you need. That's your PID. Think of it as a needle in a haystack

Plug-in
A program application that can easily be installed and used as part of a Web browser. Once installed, plug-in applications are recognized by the browser and its function integrated into the main HTML file being presented.

POP
Point of Presence. POP is a service provider's location for connecting to users. Generally, POPs refer to the location where people can dial into the provider's host computer. Most providers have several POP's to allow low-cost access via telephone lines.

Portal
A Web site or service that offers a broad array of resources and services, such as e-mail, forums, search engines, and on-line shopping malls. The first Web portals were online services, such as AOL, that provided access to the Web, but by now most of the traditional search engines have transformed themselves into Web portals to attract and keep a larger audience.

POTS (Plain Old Telephone Lines)
Unless you are reading this at a high-tech company or large corporation -- which has ISDN or T1 lines -- chances are you accessed over POTS, copper wires that transmit at about 28.8 Kbps. Which means surfing for you surfing is a fairly slow business.

PPP (Point to Point Protocol)
The language that enables a computer to use telephone lines and a modem to connect to the Internet. Gradually replacing SLIP as the preferred means of connection.

Protocol
A set of rules that governs how information is to be exchanged between computer systems. Also used in certain structured chat rooms to refer to the order in which people may speak.

Proxy Server
A server that sits between a client application, such as a Web browser, and a real server. It intercepts all requests to the real server to see if it can fulfill the requests itself. If not, it forwards the request to the real server.

Push
Is the delivery ("pushing of') of information that is initiated by the server rather than being requested ("pulled") by a user. Pointcast is the most well known push service that pushes information based on the users profile.

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Q

Query
A request for information, usually to a search engine

R

Reach
Unique Web users that visited the site over the course of the reporting period, expressed as a percent of the universe for the demographic category. Also called unduplicated audience

Real Time
Events that happen in real time are happening virtually at that particular moment. When you chat in a chat room, or send an instant message, you are interacting in real time since it is immediate.

RealAudio
A commercial software program that plays audio on demand, without waiting for long file transfers. For instance, you can listen to National Public Radios entire broadcast of All Things Considered and the Morning Edition on the Internet.

Registration
A process for site visitors to enter information about themselves. Sites use registration data to enable or enhance targeting of ads. Some sites require certain registration in order to access their content. Some sites use voluntary registration. Fee-based sites conduct registration in the form of a transaction (take a credit card to pay for the content). A registered user is a user who visits a Web site and elects, or is required, to provide certain information. Non-registered users may be denied access to a site requiring registration.

RFP
Request for proposal.

RFC (Request for Comment)
The documents that contain the protocols, standards and information that define the Internet. Gathered and published by the Internet Engineering Task Force, a consensus-building body made up of institutions and corporations involved with online communications, they are preceded by RFC and followed by a number. RFC archives can be found at InterNIC.

ROI
Return on investment.

Router
The hardware -- or software -- that handles connections between networks online. In other words, it tells your computer where to go.

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S

Screen Name
The name you use to represent yourself online.

Search Engine
A program that searches documents for specified keywords and returns a list of the documents where the keywords were found. Although a search engine is really a general class of programs, the term is often used to specifically describe systems like Alta Vista and Excite that enable users to search for documents on the World Wide Web and USENET newsgroups.

Search Engine Ranking
When a search engine user performs a search using a given word or phrase a search engine displays a list of results.  The placement of your web page in the search results is referred to as your search engine ranking.  Research shows that most users don't look at search results past the first thirty so web pages in the top thirty are considered to have excellent search engine ranking.

Server
Servers are the backbone of the Internet, the computers that are linked by communication lines and "serve up" information in the form of text, graphics and multimedia to online computers that request data -- that's you. (When a server "goes down" it loses its online link and the information it holds can not be accessed.)

Session
A series of transactions or hits made by a single user. If there has been no activity for a period of time, followed by the resumption of activity by the same user, a new session is considered started. Thirty minutes is the most common time period used to measure a session length.

Shareware
Software programs that are openly available, and usually they can be downloaded online. They are often free, though not always.

Shovelware
Shovelware is software that is inflated in value by "shoveling" in all kinds of information, usually free to anyone and generally worthless. The term is being expanded by usage to the web, where a lot of irrelevant information is shoveled onto many sites.

Shockwave
A plug-in that allows for multimedia movies to play through a browser.

SIC Codes
Standard Industrial Classifications. Classifies establishments by the type of activity in which they are engaged.

Slip
Serial Line Internet Protocol. SLIP refers to a method of Internet connection that enables computers to use phone lines and a modem to connect to the Internet without having to connect to a host.

Snail Mail
A term for traditional land and air mail services, which take days to deliver a message, versus seconds for delivery of email.

Spam
The use of mailing lists to blanket usenets or private email boxes with indiscriminate advertising messages. Very bad netiquette. Even worse, it's bad business. The future of marketing online is about customizing products and information for individual users. Anyone who tries to use old mass market techniques in the new media environment is bound to fail.

Spider
A program that automatically fetches Web pages. Spiders are used to feed pages to search engines. It's called a spider because it crawls over the Web. Another term for these programs is webcrawler.  Because most Web pages contain links to other pages, a spider can start almost anywhere. As soon as it sees a link to another page, it goes off and fetches it. Large search engines, like Alta Vista, have many spiders working in parallel.

Splash Page
A bridge page between a banner advertisement and an advertiser's Web site that provides product information and hotlinks. Splash pages are replacing many home pages -- particularly on sites more involved with news and publishing -- as gateways into web content. They start with a bigger "splash," more graphics and timely information, and change often -- like the cover of a magazine

Static Rotation
Advertisements rotate based on the entry of users into a screen. Regardless of the amount of time a user spends with a screen, advertisements will remain on the screen for the entire time and will not change.

Stickiness
A measure used to gauge the effectiveness of a site in retaining individual users. The term is typically used in promotional material when traffic numbers are too low to be effective in lauding a site's performance. Never mind the quantity, feel the stick.

Surfing
Exploring World Wide Web. Commonly seen as "Surfing the 'Net."

SYSOP
The person responsible for the day-to-day operations of a computer system or network. In large corporations, this person can be the head of the IS (Information Systems) Department.

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T

T-1
A high-speed (1.54 megabits/second) network connection.

T-3
An even higher speed (45 megabits/second) Internet connection.

Targeted Marketing
Banners or other promotions aimed, on the basis of demographic analysis, at one specific subsection of the market.

TCP
Transmission Control Protocol works with IP to ensure that packets travel safely on the Internet. This is the method by which most Internet activity takes place.

Throughput
The amount of data transmitted through Internet connectors in response to a given request. Neat term. The more "throughput" you deliver to your customers, the better (if you're charging enough).

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U

Undernet
An alternative IRC which is accessed through a normal, or public, chat area. Its access is limited, and it is usually used for private conversations. But be warned: unless you are behind a sophisticated firewall, little on the net is truly private.

Unique Users
The total number of different users, or different computer terminals which have visited a Web site. This is measured using advanced tracking technology or user registration.

Upload
To send a file from one computer to another via modem or other telecommunication method.

URL
Uniform Resource Locator, an HTTP address used by the World Wide Web to specify a certain site. This is the unique identifier, or address, of a web page on the Internet. URL can be pronounced "you-are-ell" or "earl." It is how web pages, ftp's, gophers, newsgroups and even some email boxes are located.

Usenet
Internet message boards, also known as Newsgroups. Each board has a theme, and there are tens of thousands of usenets concerning every imaginable topic. Many of them cover professional subjects and societies and are rich sources of business information; others are junk and contain little but mindless drivel.

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V

Valid Hits
A further refinement of hits, valid hits are hits that deliver all information to a user. Excludes hits such as redirects, error messages and computer-generated hits.

Viewer
Another name for a help application

Viral Marketing
Any advertising that propagates itself. When Hotmail users send e-mail, they unwittingly infect the recipient with the tagline at the bottom of the message.

Virus
These are programs that can be downloaded onto your computer or network from the Internet. Some are harmless, others are programmed to destroy your system, trash your files and disable your software. No kidding. So be careful. Use anti-virus programs. They take a few extra minutes every day to use, but the protection is worth it.

VRML: (Virtual Reality Modeling Language)
This is an online programming language for creating three-dimensional programs. Looks pretty, but at current bandwidths it's pre-e-e-etty slow.

Visits
A sequence of requests made by one user at one site. If a visitor does not request any new information for a period of time, known as the "time-out" period, then the next request by the visitor is considered a new visit. To enable comparisons among sites, I/PRO uses a 30-minute time-out.

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W

Web page
A HTML (Hypertext markup Language) document on the web, usually one of many together that makeup a web site.

Webmaster
The individual assigned to administering a corporation or organization's web site. This person lays out the information trees, designs the look, codes HTML pages, handles editing and additions and checks that links are intact. In addition, he or she monitors, routes and sometimes responds to email generated by the site.

Web Site
The virtual location for an organization's presence on the World Wide Web, usually making up several web pages and a single home page designated by a unique URL.

WAIS: (Wide Area Information Server)
WAIS, pronounced "ways," search for data through online gopher databases. Unless you are looking for scientific or technical information, look somewhere else.

Wide-Area Network (WAN)
A computer network that spans a relatively large geographical area. Typically, a WAN consists of two or more local-area networks (LANs).  Computers connected to a wide-area network are often connected through public networks, such as the telephone system. They can also be connected through leased lines or satellites. The largest WAN in existence is the Internet.

World Wide Web
The web allows computer users to access information across systems around the world using URLs to identify files and systems and hypertext links to move between files on the same or different systems. The web is a client/server information system that supports the retrieval of data in the form of text, graphics and multimedia in a uniform HTML format. Allowing hypertext links and interactivity on an unprecedented level, its introduction transformed a sleepy, academic communications system into a powerful marketing tool linking businesses and customers around the world.

Z

'zine
Magazines that are published digitally, rather than on paper. Some are mainstream, others are oddball and cover almost every topic imaginable.

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Files to download

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